Das Stativ von Jean Rouch treibt noch immer irgendwo im Niger

Ausgestattet mit einem gewissen Durst nach den großen Abenteuern und Legenden des Kinos, nach den Mythen, die alle in dicken Wälzern erklärt werden und von der Leinwand selbst strahlen, machen wir uns mit einer kleinen Gruppe an Enthusiasten auf nach Guinea, um das Stativ von Jean Rouch zu finden. Dort entspringt der Niger in der Region Faranah. Rouch hatte einmal gesagt, dass es ihm dort hineingefallen wäre. Eine aus unserer Gruppe bemerkt, dass sie das alles an La última vez que vi Macao von João Pedro Rodrigues and João Rui Guerra da Mata erinnerte und ja, es ist schwer zu leugnen, denn die beiden Filmemacher fragen sich auch, wo ein Tuch treibt, das Jane Russell in Von Sternbergs/Howard Hughes’ Macao ins Meer fallen ließ. Nur ein Fluss ist kein Meer und so hielt ich unsere Chancen das Stativ zu finden doch für deutlich realistischer. Außerdem sind die beiden portugiesischen Abenteurer (von denen zumindest einer kürzlich ganz ähnlich unseres Vorhabens nach Vögeln spähte während er in einem Fluss trieb) einer Fiktion gefolgt, während wir einer fast dokumentarischen Selbstmystifizierung des Filmemachers folgten, der wie kaum ein zweiter zwischen dem Dokumentarischen und Fiktionalen oszillierte.

Seine Aussage mit dem Stativ ist vorstellbar. Darum geht es schließlich, wenn man sich auf eine Reise begibt. Etwas muss man sich vorstellen können. Dasselbe gilt auch fürs Kino, wobei sich dort die Imagination dessen, was man sehen wird nach einer gewissen Zeit und Anzahl an gesehenen Filmen leicht in eine Abgeklärtheit verwandeln kann. Man glaubt zu wissen, was da kommt, man will es nicht mehr sehen. Anders ist auch nicht dieses bizarre Getue mit Spoilern erklärbar. Wie Kelly Reichardt einmal richtig bemerkte, könne man einem alles über einen Film erzählen, man hätte ihn trotzdem nicht gesehen.

Il pianeta azzurro

Brüssel

Bevor wir mit unserer Gruppe aus Enthusiasten, deren Enthusiasmus hier und da im Stress einer Reise zu verschwinden drohte nach Guinea flogen, stoppten wir in der von Soldaten belagerten europäischen Hauptstadt Brüssel zu einem Screeningabend mit Franco Piavoli, der durchaus ähnlichen Prinzipien wie Rouch folgt, wenn auch mit einer deutlich poetischeren und weniger ethnographischen Ader. Wir sahen einige seiner Kurzfilme, die scheinbar von Youtube heruntergeladen wurden, um ins Kino gebracht zu werden und dann auf 35mm seinen Il pianeta azzurro, für dessen in der Mehrzahl an National Geographic erinnernde Bildsprache ein Stativ unabdingbar war. Der Film, so ein Freund unserer Gruppe, wäre interessant, vor allem der zweite in der Nacht der Welt angesiedelte Teil, in dem das Blau des Titels zur Grundstimmung wird. Allerdings betone der Filmemacher die Zusammengehörigkeit von Natur und Mensch ein wenig zu sehr, er argumentiere zu deutlich in seinen eigentlich beobachtenden Bildern.

Rouch hatte diese Diskrepanz zwischen Erklärung und Beobachtung oft zwischen Bild und Sprache angelegt. So entsteht gerade durch das Fehlen eines Stativs in Les maîtres fous eine spontane Direktheit, deren hektischer Blick nie erklären könnte und die der Erzählstimme Erklärungen überlässt, welche oftmals mehr Fragen als Antworten beinhalten. Jedenfalls war Piavoli in Brüssel nicht aufgehalten worden von den patrouillierenden Soldaten und so war er anwesend beim Screening. Vor den Filmen erzählte er diese nach. Der Kurator, ein nervöser Mann mit Hipsterbart und Zetteln in der Hand, der niemals auf die Idee kommen würde, nach dem Stativ von Jean Rouch zu suchen, unterbrach den Filmemacher mehrfach mit Gesten und verbal. Zu dieser Respektlosigkeit veranlasste ihn, dass Piavoli seiner Meinung nach seine Filme vorwegnehmen würde. Piavoli entgegnete richtig, dass sich die Zuseher niemals vorstellen könnten, wie es dann im Film aussehen würde. Es gibt diese Diskrepanz zwischen dem was man sieht und dem, was man darüber sagen kann, zumal in der Erinnerung. In dieser Lücke besteht weniger das Kino selbst, als das, was es mit uns tun kann.

Jean Rouch

Wir kamen schon ziemlich müde in Siguiri an. Eigentlich wollten wir an einer Goldmine stoppen, aber dann erinnerten wir uns an die schwarzen Tulpen am Ufer des Nigers. Sie hängen zusammen mit Madame l’eau, in dem Rouch den Traum einiger afrikanischen Freunde verfolgt, die Windmühlen zum Niger bringen wollten: “I had started to make a film about the drought. I had no solution. I was just filming Damouré, and people migrating to the south to farm millet because there was no rain here. The title of the film is awful, Madame l’eau. Philo noticed that Damouré’s rice lands were a similar mixture of sand and clay to that the Dutch use to farm tulips. I thought it would be wonderful, as a challenge to development and the drought, to farm tulips on the Niger’s banks, and to invent a new type: the black tulip from Niger. This is so crazy because the tulip is totally unnecessary. That’s the dream: we will shoot dream sequences of black tulips on the banks of the Niger.“

Idealisten

Rouch hatte ein Problem mit Chris Marker. Dieser wäre ein Idealist, er würde glauben, die Welt verändern zu können. Wir in unserer Gruppe aus Enthusiasten fühlen uns näher zu Rouch. Das liegt vielleicht daran, dass wir auf diese Reisen gehen, weil wir glauben, dass die Welt uns verändern wird, nicht wir die Welt. Wir haben keine Kamera dabei und eigentlich schäme ich mich ein wenig, dass ich diese Gedanken und Erlebnisse hier niederschreibe. So geht es mir nach jedem Film. Betrügt man nicht ein wenig die Kraft und Unschuld des Sehens mit den Worten, die man sucht, findet? Die Lücke, die beschreibt, was das Kino mit uns tun kann, muss sie beschrieben werden? Vor allem: Muss es immer eine schnelle Reaktion sein, eine Bewertung, eine Einordnung?

Nun ist es schon interessant: Da filmt ein Filmemacher, der sein Stativ im Niger verloren hat am Niger Menschen. Es sagt viel aus über Jean Rouch, dass er die Menschen gefilmt hat statt sein Stativ zu suchen. Ich frage mich, als wir uns doch zu einer dieser Goldminen bewegen, aus Neugier und Gier, ob er auch bei den Menschen geblieben wäre, wenn seine Kamera in den Niger gefallen wäre. Das Züchten schwarzer Tulpen am Ufer ist vielleicht als Kinotraum schöner als in dem, was man Realität nennt. Warum, fragt ein schon sehr erschöpfter Enthusiast mit Schweiß auf der Stirn und mit vor Müdigkeit weit aufgerissenen Augen, wäre das einzige Bild, das er von den Goldminen in Afrika hätte, jenes von Leonardo DiCaprio in Blood Diamond? Es entflammt eine hitzige Diskussion in der Gruppe über das, was man ein kulturelles Gedächtnis nennt, über die Art und Weise, in der sich Bilder einprägen, welche Bilder eine Chance bekommen, sich einzuprägen und welche gewissermaßen im Niger ertrinken. Warum kennen wir keine afrikanischen Bilder vom Niger? Als wir schon in unseren Zelten unter den Sternen lagen, fiel der Name René Caillié. Er war der erste Europäer, der lebend aus Timbuktu zurückkehrte und davon berichtete. In seinem Schreiben, das einige von uns in deutscher Übersetzung gelesen haben, vermischt sich fast spielerisch die Neugier, der staunende Blick mit einer verstörenden kolonialistischen Rhetorik. Caillié wurde mit viel Anerkennung und Geld überschüttet in Frankreich. Mit 38 Jahren verstarb er nach anhaltenden Krankheiten. Sein Monument steht heute noch in Kouroussa. Dort würden wir am nächsten Tag hinreißen. Meine Augen schließen sich langsam, ich höre noch wie jemand sagt, dass das Stativ mit Sicherheit gefunden und verkauft worden wäre, im Niger würde alles verkauft werden. Dann träume ich von schwarzen Tulpen.

Es sollte mehr Filme geben, die der Dramaturgie von Flüssen folgen. Die Donau rauf von Peter Nestler, der sehr verwandt mit Rouch scheint, ist zu kurz, sollte mehr haben, sollte mehr Geld bekommen haben, um länger mit dem Fluss zu sein. Er findet Geschichten entlang des mächtigen Flusses und filmt diesen wie eine Person. Man denkt an das wundervolle Buch Donau: Biographie eines Flusses von Claudio Magris. Die Reise entlang eines Lebewesens, eines Naturphänomens, einer geographischen Gegebenheit als Anlass und prägendes Element einer Erzählung. Man denkt an Peter Huttons Study of a River. Es ginge nicht unbedingt nur darum, dass Filme einen Fluss filmen, sondern auch darum, dass sie sich dramaturgisch an Flüsse annäherten. Mein Lieblingsgenre, denke ich ganz bei mir, wäre das Binnendelta. Das langsame Versickern, Trennen, Sammeln an einer Tür zwischen Land und Wasser. Der Niger bildet ein solches Delta in Mali. Massina heißt die Region, totes Delta. Dort wäre das Stativ mit Sicherheit nicht durchgekommen.

Study of a River

Bell & Howell

Leider ist uns völlig unklar, wo genau Rouch sein Stativ verloren hat. 1941 ging er mit zwei Freunden nach Niger, um dort in den französischen Kolonien zu arbeiten. Er traf dort auf Menschen, Kulturen, die sein Filmemachen maßgeblich prägten. Er schrieb einmal von der Möglichkeit die Abenteuer eines anderen im eigenen Körper zu erleben. Aus diesem Grund, so formulierte er später, würde er auch auf das Stativ verzichten. Cine-Trance nannte er das Vorgehen des Verschwindens des Filmemachers im Körper von jenen, die er betrachtete. Nach einigem Ärger mit Vorgesetzten kehrte Rouch 1946 mit Jean Sauvy und Pierry Ponty zurück nach Afrika. Sie paddelten in einem Kanu flussabwärts und begleiteten eine Nilpferdjagd. Unter dem Pseudonym Jean Pierjean, eine Mischung ihrer drei Namen, schickten sie Artikel darüber nach Frankreich und filmten mit einer 16mm Bell & Howell. Es war hier, das Rouch sein Stativ in der Strömung verlor. Er filmte weiter, es entstand der Film Au pays des mages noirs.

And they came to the river
And they came from the road
And he wanted the sun
Just to call his own
And they walked on the dirt
And they walked from the road
‚Til they came to the river
‚Til they came up close

Der Film beginnt mit bedrohlicher Musik, betont werden die Abenteurer, die es in ein fremdes Gebiet zieht. Die ersten Bilder sind von einem Stativ geschossen. Dramatisch wird von der Gefahr und dem Ungewissen im „vorgeschichtlichen“ Afrika erzählt, während wir Bilder von gefährlichen und großen Tieren sehen. Rouch hatte keine Kontrolle über den schnitt und auch nicht über die Erzählstimme. Er sagte einmal abwertend, dass der Voice-Over wie ein Reporter bei der Tour de France klingen würde. Zwischen Gao und Niamey wäre der Film angesiedelt. Wir sind also auf dem richtigen Weg, Rouch hat sein Stativ nach dem Binnendelta verloren. Sie mögen sich vielleicht fragen, warum wir nicht gleich dort hingereist sind. So ganz genau und zu aller Zufriedenheit können wir diese Frage nicht beantworten, vielleicht aber sind Sie mit den Machenschaften des Kinoapparats vertraut und sich durchaus bewusst, dass ein Fluss prinzipiell in alle Richtungen fließen kann. In einem Land der schwarzen Tulpen hielten wir es für nicht ausgeschlossen, dass das Stativ flussaufwärts trieb, vielleicht auch im Maul eines Nilpferds davongetragen wurde.

Es regnete als wir Au pays des mages noirs wieder sahen und uns bewusst wurde, dass unsere Fantasie uns womöglich einen Streich gespielt hatte. Doch „Fantasy“ ist auch der Titel von Tag Gallaghers herausragender Rossellini-Biographie The Adventures of Roberto Rossellini und nicht nur deshalb wissen wir, dass großes Kino immer mit Fantasie beginnt.

“I had lost my tripod early on in some rapids and didn’t know how to shoot so as to be able to edit the footage later. We stopped one day just south of the Mali/Niger border, in Ayorou, which I knew pretty well, as I had been there as an engineer. I asked them to build a canoe and to hunt hippopotamuses from it—we returned and filmed them. We crossed into Nigeria, going through the rapids where Mungo Park was killed, and by the time we reached the sea, we were thoroughly exasperated with each other. From there, we returned to Paris in a military plane.“

Schwarze Magie

Dann filmt Rouch ein Dorf. So ganz ist nicht erkennbar, ob er dabei noch im Besitz eines Stativs war oder nicht. Es gibt zwar Schwenks, aber sie sind schlampig genug, um aus der Hand gemacht worden zu sein. Doch es folgen einige statische Bilder von der Arbeit am Fluss und wir sind uns sicher, dass er hier sein Stativ nicht verloren hat. Waffen werden gebaut, Waffen um Nilpferde zu töten. Der Ton des Films erinnert an Robert Flaherty. Ein Filmemacher von dem es unglaubliche viele Bilder mit einem Stativ gibt. Meist steht er damit an unmöglichen Orten. Diese Bilder erinnern an Van Gogh. Jemand geht in die Landschaft und stellt sich hin. Jemand macht ein Bild. Rouch hat einmal geschrieben: “Perhaps it was due to such simplicity and naïveté that these pioneers discovered the essential questions that we still ask ourselves today: Must one “stage” reality (the staging of “real life”) as did Flaherty, or should one, like Vertov, film “without awareness” (“seizing improvised life”)?“

Bei Rouch wirkt vieles, auch aufgrund technischer Entwicklungen spontaner, weniger kontrolliert. Er schneidet auch viel. Nach einem Opferritual bewegen sich die Jäger und Fischer aufs Wasser. Rouch fährt mit ihnen. Es folgen unglaubliche Bilder der Jagd auf ein Nilpferd, die wieder an Flaherty erinnern. Die selbst gemachten Harpunen fliegen durch die Luft, die Waden der Ruderer, Körper, die im Schilf zu schweben scheinen. Sie töten das Tier, das mehr einer abstrakten Masse durchbohrt mit geschnitzten Waffen gleicht. Die Bilder wirken noch immer statisch, vor allem wenn man bedenkt, dass Rouch auf einem Kanu sitzt. Im Anschluss filmt Rouch das Schlachtungsritual, lächelnde Gesichter. Rouch hat einmal gesagt, dass es nichts gäbe, was man nicht auch ohne Stativ filmen könne. Das erinnert an Cristi Puiu, der sich gerne damit brüstet, die Handkamera ins rumänische Kino gebracht zu haben. Allerdings habe er sein Stativ nicht im Niger verloren, sondern schlicht nicht genug Geld dafür.

image-w12801

Irgendwie beschleicht mich beim Sehen das merkwürdige Gefühl, dass es für dieses Filmemachen von Rouch fast egal ist, ob er sein Stativ nun verloren hat oder nicht. Einer aus unserer Gruppe, er hat fast schon aufgegeben mit dem Kino, sagte mir einmal auf unserer Reise, dass es bei Dokumentationen sowieso nur um Zugang ginge. Mit Zugang meinte er, dass es letztlich darum ginge, was man filmte, nicht wie man es filmte. Ein sehr verkürzter Gedanke, wie ich finde, auch wenn ich die Grundneugier von Festivals bezüglich Filmemachern, die vom Ende der Welt zurückkehren, manchmal wie René Caillié, nicht leugnen kann. Es ist auch romantisch, wenn man an diese einsamen Filmemacher denkt, die reisen und reisen und uns Bilder mitbringen. Vielleicht sind wir deshalb auch aufgebrochen, um das Stativ von Jean Rouch zu suchen. Der Film wurde in Frankreich übrigens auf 35mm aufgeblasen zusammen mit Rossellinis Stromboli gezeigt. Später veröffentlichte Rouch einen Reisebericht, ein Ausschnitt aus The Mad Fox and the Pale Master:

„But there was still this majestic and beautiful Niger River, at the same time terrifying with its crocodiles and welcoming with all its freshness. Slowly, and with a great deal of reticence, I learned how to swim there, to navigate a canoe, and to avoid the mud banks and the cutting oysters, or the terrible steel hook fishing lines of the mamari “thieves.” Damouré Zika, one of the very young employees of the public works, was my initiator, and we traded knowledge: he was a Sorko fisherman, a master of the river, but I was a better swimmer than he.

So little by little, I became more distant from the European community, sharing my work and play with my first African friends. In fact I didn’t understand anything: you couldn’t swim over there because of a karey kyi, a “man-eating crocodile,” yet here, less than fifty meters away, you could dive in complete safety. At night you could go down to the Comacico cinema on a bicycle with a swinging lamp that hooked onto the handlebars. But you had to come back by the main road of the Bureau of Domaines (whose official buildings housed managing offices for public institutions and state properties), to avoid the “soul-eating sorcerers.”“

Was haben wir also zu erzählen, die nach einem Stativ eines Filmemachers suchen statt uns wirklich umzusehen? Unsere Gruppe aus Enthusiasten, so schien es mir plötzlich, war mehr auf der Flucht vor dem Sehen, als etwas zu suchen. Wir wurden müde von uns selbst. Es scheint sehr einfach sich für das verlorene Stativ von Jean Rouch zu begeistern. Der eingangs erwähnte Durst nach den großen Abenteuern verliert sich zu leicht in der Begeisterung für selbige. Nicht die Tat wird dann entscheidend, sondern der Held. Nun könnte man sagen, dass wir uns ja auf eine ähnliche Reise gemacht haben, so etwas gab es schon öfter in der Filmgeschichte, man denke an Innisfree von José Luis Guerín, also die Idee, dass man an einen bereits vom Kino bewohnten Ort blickt und dort auch hinter das, was man aus dem Kino kennt schaut. Nur tun wir das oder suchen wir bereits nach dem nächsten Abenteuer, dem nächsten Kleidungsstück von Jane Russell im Meer, der nächsten Einstellung, die wir so mal bei Marguerite Duras gesehen haben, den nächsten Schauspieler, den wir aus einem anderen Film kennen?

Wir brechen die Suche ab. Jemand kauft ein Stativ und eine Kamera und wir verlassen den Fluss. Danke, Jean Rouch.

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  32. Apple currently has Rhapsody as an application, which is a Terrific commence, but it is by now hampered as a result of the inability towards keep regionally on your iPod, and contains a dismal 64kbps bit price. If this adjustments, then it will relatively negate this benefit for the Zune, yet the 10 audio for every thirty day period will however be a big additionally within just Zune Pass‘ choose.

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  42. Thank you for the sensible critique. Me & my neighbor were just preparing to do some research on this. We got a grab a book from our area library but I think I learned more clear from this post. I’m very glad to see such fantastic info being shared freely out there.

  43. Apple previously has Rhapsody as an app, which is a exceptional start out, but it is presently hampered via the incapacity in the direction of keep domestically on your iPod, and includes a dismal 64kbps bit selling price. If this changes, then it will fairly negate this advantage for the Zune, nonetheless the Ten tunes per month will still be a substantial moreover in just Zune Pass‘ prefer.

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  48. I am going to devices this study in direction of 2 models of people: recent Zune owners who are looking at an update, and human beings making an attempt in direction of make a decision involving a Zune and an iPod. (There are other players truly worth looking at out there, like the Sony Walkman X, yet I hope this presents on your own more than enough information toward crank out an conscious determination of the Zune vs avid gamers other than the iPod line as perfectly.)

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  50. Excellent blog here! Also your site loads up fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my site loaded up as fast as yours lol

  51. Sorry for the substantial critique, still I am fairly loving the fresh new Zune, and hope this, as effectively as the good quality opinions some other men and women have prepared, will aid yourself make a decision if it is really the straight final decision for your self.

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  54. Zune and iPod: Most individuals examine the Zune in the direction of the Touch, nonetheless once viewing how slender and incredibly very little and light it is, I try it in direction of be a fairly unique hybrid that brings together attributes of both the Contact and the Nano. It is incredibly colourful and stunning OLED display is somewhat lesser than the contact screen, however the player itself feels quite a little bit smaller sized and lighter. It weighs pertaining to 2/3 as much, and is significantly smaller sized inside of width and height, even though staying accurately a hair thicker.

  55. Concerning me and my husband we have owned far more MP3 players over the several years than I can count, which include Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etc. But, the final few decades I have settled down towards a single line of avid gamers. Why? Mainly because I was satisfied to find how well-designed and enjoyment in the direction of use the underappreciated (and broadly mocked) Zunes are.

  56. Zune and iPod: Utmost americans look at the Zune in direction of the Touch, nevertheless soon after observing how slender and astonishingly low and gentle it is, I consider it toward be a as a substitute special hybrid that brings together attributes of both the Touch and the Nano. It is really fairly colorful and magnificent OLED display is somewhat smaller sized than the touch screen, but the participant itself feels rather a little bit more compact and lighter. It weighs with regards to 2/3 as significantly, and is drastically lesser within just width and height, When remaining accurately a hair thicker.

  57. I think this is among the most important info for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But wanna remark on some general things, The web site style is wonderful, the articles is really great : D. Good job, cheers

  58. The Zune concentrates upon being a Moveable Media Player. Not a world-wide-web browser. Not a match machine. Quite possibly inside the long run it’ll do even far better inside individuals areas, yet for previously it can be a extraordinary path toward set up and hear towards your audio and films, and is without the need of peer in that respect. The iPod’s benefits are its web visiting and applications. If those people strong a lot more powerful, maybe it is your simplest determination.

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  60. Sorry for the substantial overview, nonetheless I’m exceptionally loving the clean Zune, and count on this, as perfectly as the Terrific testimonials some other us citizens have penned, will aid by yourself come to a decision if it is the directly conclusion for by yourself.

  61. Thank you for any other informative web site. The place else may just I am getting that type of information written in such a perfect means? I’ve a venture that I’m just now operating on, and I have been on the glance out for such information.

  62. The clean Zune browser is amazingly Fantastic, nevertheless not as Excellent as the iPod’s. It functions very well, but isn’t really as instant as Safari, and includes a clunkier interface. If you often plan upon employing the web browser that’s not an issue, however if you happen to be coming up with to study the internet alot from your PMP then the iPod’s larger show and improved browser could possibly be critical.

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  64. If you’re still upon the fence: seize your favourite earphones, brain down towards a Simplest Order and ask to plug them into a Zune then an iPod and watch which one appears superior towards you, and which interface would make yourself smile added. Then you can expect to notice which is directly for oneself.

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  68. Fingers down, Apple’s application store wins as a result of a mile. It’s a huge selection of all varieties of purposes vs a fairly unhappy quantity of a handful for Zune. Microsoft has Options, especially inside of the realm of video games, yet I’m not positive I’d will need in direction of bet on the future if this aspect is major in direction of your self. The iPod is a a lot better option inside that scenario.

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  70. Apple at this time contains Rhapsody as an app, which is a best get started, nevertheless it is previously hampered by way of the inability in the direction of keep domestically on your iPod, and is made up of a dismal 64kbps bit value. If this adjustments, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, nonetheless the Ten songs for every thirty day period will nonetheless be a significant plus inside Zune Pass‘ desire.

  71. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be actually something which I think I would never understand. It seems too complicated and very broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post, I will try to get the hang of it!

  72. fantastic issues altogether, you simply gained a emblem new reader. What would you suggest in regards to your post that you just made some days ago? Any positive?

  73. Thank you, I’ve recently been looking for info about this subject for ages and yours is the best I have found out so far. However, what in regards to the bottom line? Are you positive about the supply?

  74. Involving me and my spouse we have owned even further MP3 players in excess of the several years than I can depend, including Sansas, iRivers, iPods (classic & touch), the Ibiza Rhapsody, etcetera. But, the very last pair several years I’ve fixed down in direction of one particular line of players. Why? Due to the fact I was happy towards obtain how well-designed and enjoyment towards use the underappreciated (and extensively mocked) Zunes are.

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