Das Meer bei Šarūnas Bartas und bei Jean Epstein

In Freedom von Šarūnas Bartas ist der Anblick und das Geräusch des Meeres ein bitteres Versprechen, die untergehende Sonne brennt mit ihrem roten Atem über die Ufer einer Welt, die, das wird im Lauf des Films spürbar, einem Gefängnis gleicht. Dabei findet Bartas immer wieder Einstellungen des Meeres, die es zu einem mysteriösen Reich werden lassen, mit Formen, die wir nicht verstehen und Wellen, die an der Zeit kleben und sich gleich einem Schwarm durch dieses Wasser kämpfen. Das Rauschen ist derart penetrant, dass man es selbst im Hinterland, den Geröllwüsten des Films noch vernehmen kann. Nach einer Zeit wird klar, dass diese Bilder, die man leichtfertig mit Freiheit und Aufbruch assoziiert, in Wahrheit ein Gefängnis und eine Qual sind. Man fühlt sich schlaflos am Meer, weil man das Rauschen nicht ertragen kann. Es geht immer weiter, wie ein dösendes Summen im Hinterkopf.

Le Tempestaire2

Le tempestaire von Jean Epstein

In Jean Epsteins Le tempestaire ist die Magie des Ozeans keine Sache der Imagination oder Erwartung. Herrscher über die Stürme kontrollieren die Flut. In einer Kristallkugel verlangsamen sie und lassen das Meer rückwärts laufen. Sie sind in Wahrheit Filmemacher, die jene Zeit manipulieren, die der Motor für jene salzigen Wiesen sind, die gegen die schroffen Felsen brechen. Schon zu Beginn wird das klar, wenn Epstein dasselbe mit seinen Figuren macht und sie aus Standbildern entstehen lässt, wie ein Gott der Zeit mit dem sinnlichen Gefühl einer leichten Brise des ersten Atemzugs. Sowohl Bartas als auch Epstein interessieren sich für die Mechanismen des Meeres und das Leben im Laugenduft der Algen. Sie zeigen das Brachland eines vom Wasser verlorenen Bodens (Die Figuren bei Bartas wandern durch die Wüste einer Ebbe und gehen in einer unfassbaren Szene mit der Flut in Richtung Ufer.) und die Dynamik des Wellenspiels und des Lichts, das auf dem Wasser in tausend Teile zerbricht. In beiden Fällen ist das Meer Hintergrund für einen existenziellen Überlebenskampf. Beide thematisieren damit Emotionen beim Blick auf das Meer, das in vielerlei Hinsicht genauso arbeitet wie das Kino. Bewegung, Licht, Ton und eine Unsicherheit gegenüber den Kräften, die von diesem Wasser ausgehen und die dieses Wasser beherrschen. Beide Filme sind nicht nur Filme über das Meer sondern auch über den Wind am Meer.

Freedom2

Freedom von Šarūnas Bartas

Doch in beiden Filmen ist das Meer beziehungsweise der Wind eine Bedrohung, ein Gefängnis, eine Angst. In Freedom wird das Meer zu einem Sinnbild für politische Grenzen einer hoffnungslosen Flucht, aber einer derart erhabenen Grenze, dass man sich fragen könnte, ob es nur an unserer Wahrnehmung dieses Wassers liegt, dass es so tödlich sein kann. Gleich zu Beginn fallen Schüsse auf dem offenen Meer. Es wird kontrolliert. Doch nicht von mysteriösen Magiern und moralischen Poeten wie bei Epstein sondern von Gesetzeshütern. In einer traurigen Szene müssen wir machtlos zusehen wie Vögel losfliegen. Man selbst kann das nicht. Bei Epstein hängt das Meer an einer regionalen Folklore und am Aberglauben, bei Bartas umspannt es die ganze Welt. In beiden Fällen zeigt es ein Potenzial des Kinos an, das weit über dessen narrative Ideologien hinausreicht. Jeder Filmemacher sollte wenigstens einmal das Meer gefilmt haben, denn es scheint mir eines der wenigen Bilder zu sein, die sich nicht wiederholen können, da das Meer immer etwas anderes ist.

Gustave Flaubert (November)
„Ich stieg eilends zur Meeresküste hinab, mit sicherem Sprung über Geröll hinwegsetzend. Ich trug den Kopf hoch voll Selbstgefühl, ich atmete stolz die frische Brise, die den Schweiß in meinen Haaren trocknete. Der Geist Gottes erfüllte mich. Ich fühlte, wie mein Herz sich weitete. In einer merkwürdigen Erregung betete ich etwas an; ich hätte mich im Sonnenlicht auflösen und in der azurnen Unendlichkeit verlieren mögen, mit dem Duft, der von der Fläche der Fluten stieg.“

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