Benshi erzählt: Eine Reise in ein fremdes Land, eine Reise in die Vergangenheit

Als leidenschaftlicher Kinogänger findet man mitunter nicht nur Gefallen an bestimmten Filmen, die entweder durch ihre Form oder ihren Inhalt hervorstechen, sondern auch an bestimmten Vorführungssituationen, man könnte auch sagen an Komponenten des medialen Umfelds, die einen Kinobesuch begleiten. Auch aus diesem Grund ist das Filmmuseum der Heilige Hain der Wiener Cinephilie; Perfektion in Sachen Vorführung wird dort durch die (beispielhafte) Loyalität des Publikums vergütet.

Im folgenden Text geht es aber (zur Abwechslung) nicht um das Österreichische Filmmuseum, sondern um das Metro Kinokulturhaus, die Spielstätte des Filmarchiv Austria. Das mag angesichts der obigen Einleitung seltsam erscheinen, zeichnet sich das Metro seit seiner Wiedereröffnung im Herbst dieses Jahres doch gerade durch Projektionsbedingungen aus, die einer Cinemathek unwürdig sind. Grausige Erfahrungen, wie das fahlgrüne Licht des Notausgangslichts, denkbar unglücklich direkt neben der Leinwand des Eric-Pleskow-Saals platziert, das Bressons Mouchette trübte, wiederholten sich glücklicherweise nicht. An anderer Stelle scheint den Leitern des Hauses die Überwindung der Kinderkrankheiten kein so großes Anliegen oder schlichtweg egal zu sein. Zum Beispiel könnte man mittlerweile den Projektionisten mitteilen erst dann mit der Projektion zu starten, wenn der Vorhang im Historischen Saal gänzlich zur Seite gefahren ist. Das ist zwar in den meisten Fällen irrelevant und „eigentlich eh egal“, aber einer solchen Institution ganz einfach nicht würdig. Nichtsdestominder, hat die Summe der kleinen Details, die „eigentlich eh egal“ sind, schon zu einem gewissen Antagonismus gegenüber dem Haus geführt, dessen Eröffnung ich damals als Erweiterung des Wiener Filmangebots sehr begrüßt hatte.

Historischer Saal des Metro Kinos

Als schwacher Geist mit inhaltistischen Begierden zieht es mich trotzdem immer wieder, an diesen verdammenswerten Ort (Nein, nicht wirklich verdammenswert, aber mir gefällt der Pathos, den das Wort mit sich bringt). In der Regel zieht es mich dann zu den kanonischen Klassikern, als zu den großen Retrospektiven, die der österreichischen Filmgeschichte gewidmet sind. Eines der Programme, das im Moment, und nur noch diese Woche, im Metro gezeigt wird, transzendiert aber die Grenzen von Filmkanon und österreichischer Filmgeschichte: „Benshi erzählt – Japanische Stummfilmtage“ nennt sich diese Schau. Zu sehen sind frühe Stummfilme von unter anderem Yasujiro Ozu, Kenji Mizoguchi und Mikio Naruse, aber, um wieder zum Eingangsparagrafen zurückzukehren, im Falle von „Benshi erzählt“ geht es nicht so sehr darum welche Filme gezeigt werden, sondern die Art und Weise wie sie gezeigt werden, denn Benshis sind Japanische Filmerzähler, also Angehörige jenes (ausgestorbenen) Berufsstandes, die in der Frühzeit des Kinos, die damals dramaturgisch noch unausgereiften Filme durch orale Narration begleiteten und erklärten. Während diese Kinoerzähler im westlichen Kulturkreis schon in den 1910er Jahren praktisch verschwunden waren, hielten sie sich in Japan bis in die 30er Jahre, was unter anderem dazu führte, dass dort erst Ende dieses Jahrzehnts der Tonfilm reüssieren konnte. In der Einführung vor dem diensttägigen Filmprogramm, wird erwähnt, dass es einigen Benshis zu verdanken ist, das der gezeigte Film, Die Wasserzauberin von Kenji Mizoguchi überhaupt die Jahre und Jahrzehnte überstanden hat; die Überlieferungsrate japanischer Stummfilme liegt bei nur drei Prozent (Nitrofilmlager und Erdbebenregionen vertragen sich schlecht). Ichiro Kataoka betritt in traditioneller japanischer Tracht die Bühne und nimmt auf der einen Seite der Leinwand Stellung, auf der anderen hat bereits Gerhard Gruber am Klavier Stellung bezogen. Zuerst erklingt bloß das Klimpern der Klaviertasten, bis die Erzählung einsetzt. Meister Kataoka spricht Japanisch, die Zwischentitel werden Englisch untertitelt, und obwohl man somit nur jene Passagen versteht, in denen der Benshi die Dialoge der Zwischentitel nachspricht, ist der Effekt ein ganz anderer. Verschiedene Stimmlagen, emotionale Aufladungen und allein schon die stimmliche Präsenz dynamisieren die Filmhandlung ungemein. Wie ein zweites Instrument ergänzt die Stimme des Erzählers die Tonebene. Das Klavier agiert sozusagen als Hintergrundmusik und die emotionalen Akzente werden durch den Sprecher gesetzt.

Das Resultat ist also einerseits wissenschaftlich-historisch interessant, da es einen Einblick gibt, wie Aufführungssituationen im frühen Kino womöglich vonstattengingen, andererseits bietet der Benshi schlicht und einfach eine tolle Show, die man als solche würdigen muss. Film als audiovisuelles Hörbuch in einer fremden Sprache, Kino um eine theatrale Dimension erweitert, und das ist nicht im negativen Sinne gemeint, ein Einblick in eine fremde Kultur und eine vielleicht weniger pure, aber dafür umso spannendere Filmerfahrung.

Kenji Mizoguchi am Set

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